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What is collagen?

Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body, found in the bones, muscles, skin and tendons. It is the substance that holds the body together. Collagen forms a scaffold to provide strength and structure.

Endogenous collagen is natural collagen, synthesized by the body. Exogenous collagen is synthetic. It comes from an outside source, such as supplements.

Fast facts on collagen

Here are some key points about collagen. More detail is in the main article.

  • Collagen occurs throughout the body, but especially in the skin, bones, and connective tissues.
  • Some types of collagen fibrils, gram-for-gram, are stronger than steel.
  • Collagen production declines with age and exposure to factors such as smoking and UV light.
  • Collagen can be used in collagen dressings, to attract new skin cells to wound sites.
  • Cosmetic lotions that claim to increase collagen levels are unlikely to do so, as collagen molecules are too large to be absorbed through the skin.

What damages collagen?

Some factors can deplete the levels of collagen within the body. Avoiding them could keep the skin healthy for longer.

  • High sugar consumption: A high-sugar diet increases the rateTrusted Source of glycation, a process where blood sugars attach to proteins to form new molecules called advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs damage nearby proteins and can make collagen dry, brittle, and weak.
  • Smoking: Many chemicals present in tobacco smoke damage both collagen and elastin in the skin. Nicotine also narrows the blood vessels in the outer layers of the skin. This compromises skin health by reducing the delivery of nutrients and oxygen to the skin.
  • Sunlight: Ultraviolet rays in sunlight cause collagen to break down more rapidly, damaging collagen fibers and causing abnormal elastin to build up. The UV rays in sunlight damage the collagen in the dermis, and the skin rebuilds incorrectly, forming wrinkles.
  • Autoimmune disorders: Some autoimmune disorders cause antibodies to target collagen. The aging process causes collagen levels to deplete naturally over time. There is no way to prevent this.

Avoiding tobacco and excess sun exposure and following a healthful dietary and exercise regime can help reduce visible aging and protect collagen, keeping the skin, bones, muscles, and joints healthy for longer.


Q10 is a coenzyme found naturally in all body cells. It’s vital for energy production to fulfil the skin’s basic functions such as regeneration and repair. As our skin is the outermost layer of the body, it is constantly exposed to various external factors, including oxidative stress caused by the sun’s UV rays. Plus, internal processes can cause the release of free radicals which cause further damage. So what is coenzyme Q10’s role? Coenzyme Q10, or CoQ10, is released as an antioxidant to combat this oxidative stress, which is why it is so essential for smooth, healthy-looking skin.

As we age, the levels of natural Coenzyme Q10 in our skin decrease. Due to the fact that it is such a vital antioxidant and crucial for the energy production process, a reduction in Q10 makes the skin more prone to increased stress and damage. This makes it more susceptible to fine lines and wrinkles, and that’s why integrating products with Q10 into your skin care routine could help to maintain Your skin youth

What is glutathione?


Glutathione is one of agents which is commonly used to lighten skin color in Asia as a dietary supplement. Previous studies suggest its potential effect of glutathione on skin color. However, the clinical efficacy of glutathione in oral form is still questionable due to its limited absorption and bioavailability.


To determine the clinical effects of glutathione on skin color and related skin conditions.


A systematic review was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, EMBASE and Cochrane library were searched from inceptions to October 2017. All clinical studies evaluating the effect of glutathione on any skin effects in healthy volunteer were included.


A total of four studies were included. Three studies were RCTs with placebo control, while one was a single-arm trial. One study used topical form, while others used oral form of glutathione with 250 to 500 mg/day. We found that both oral glutathione with the dosage of 500 mg/day and topical 2.0% oxidized glutathione could brighten skin color in sun-exposed area measured by skin melanin index. No significant differences in the reduction in skin melanin index were observed in sun-protected area for any products. In addition, glutathione also has a trend to improve skin wrinkle, skin elasticity, and UV spots. Some adverse events but nonserious were reported.